Since the mid-1920s, the Presidential Seal has featured the sun, symbolizing the Republic of Turkey, as well as 16 five-pointed stars.
The stars were attributed in the official narrative of Turkey to “the 16 Great Turkish Empires” in 1969. Previously, it was accepted that they were symbols for the 16 Turkish beyliks, the principalities that emerged in Anatolia between the 13th-15th centuries, after the fall of the Seljuks.
According to the official narrative, the 16 Great Turkish Empires that ruled in Asia, Europe and Africa, are as follows:
The Great Hunnic Empire (209 BC-93 AD),
the Western Hunnic Empire (48 AD-216 AD),
the European Hunnic Empire (375-469),
the White Hunnic Empire (390-577),
the Göktürk Empire (552-745),
the Avar Empire (565-835),
the Khazar Empire (651-983),
the Uighur State (745-1369),
the Karahanids (840-1212),
the Gaznavids (962-1186),
the Great Seljuk Empire (1040-1157),
the Harzemshahs (1097-1231),
the Golden Horde State (1236-1502),
the Great Timur Empire (1368-1501),
the Babur Empire (1526-1858) and
the Ottoman Empire (1299-1922).