Surgeon General

20200406


Zoomだけじゃない!リモートワークの新「神器」

オリエンタルランド、2カ月休園でも磐石なわけ


根据NPR的消息,Trump Again Speaks In Favor Of Anti-Malaria Drug As Coronavirus Treatment,Updated at 9:12 p.m. ET,美国现在开始执行的是夏令时,所以美国东部时间ET刚刚好是北京时间晚了12个小时。所以很好转换,例如该篇报道时美国东部当地时间周六晚上9:12分更新的,就是我们的周日早上9:12分。这里有一个网站可以转换时间。

特总还是很辛苦的,周日晚上还和他的抗疫天团(coronavirus task force)举行了一个虽然蛮仓促(a hastily scheduled news conference)的新闻发布会。会上他还是再次强调了一直备受争议的治疗方法:用羟氯喹(hydroxychloroquine,这个单词是:hydrogen"氯"+chloro"氯基"+quine“奎因”组成)。不知道是不是病急乱投医,这个羟氯喹有一些效果:"Lab studies have shown that the drug blocked the coronavirus from entering cells"。不过:"But full-scale clinical strudies have not yet shown that the drug is an effective COVID-19 treatment."

在被追问特总为什么要"He also suggested doctors take the drug before treating coronavirus patients",他的回答是:"I've seen things that I like," "What do I know? I'm not a doctor. I'm not a doctor, but I have common sense."。看来特总很多的行动都是建立在他自己的“COMMON SENSE”(常识)之上的。特总的建议还建立于联邦政府的“弹药”充足:stockpiled 29 million doses of hydroxychloroquine。

口罩其实有作用的,不过口罩缺货,就建议大家不要戴口罩;羟氯喹储备充足,即使没确定确实有效也建议大家搏一把。这个逻辑......不知道怎么说。

Asked about why he is giving medical advice while acknowledging he's not a doctor, Trump said there is simply not enough time to go through the normal testing process.
"People are dying," he said. He added that there is not enough time to test a drug for over a year. Trump said people should follow their doctor's advice and emphasized that he was not promoting the use of the drug. He also said it would be a shame not to try it if it were effective.
Earlier in the day, Fauci suggested during his CBS interview that there was no evidence that hydroxychloroquine had any benefit against coronavirus.
"In terms of science, I don't think we can definitively say it works," he said.
When a reporter sought to ask Fauci during the evening briefing about the drug's effectiveness, Trump interrupted before Fauci could answer.



特总还是希望给大家一些信心的:

Trump took a more uplifting approach during Sunday's press briefing, saying the country is seeing "a light at the end of the tunnel." "We see a light at the end of the tunnel," he said. "Things are happening."

He said more than 3,000 military officials have been deployed throughout the country and that teh federal government has delivered 500 ventilators to New Jersey, 200 to Louisiana, 300 to Michigan and 600 to Illinois.

He also said 1.67 million COVID tests have been completed nationwide.

这里有一些对美国现在形势的英语描述:

1、American's most trying times。trying times 最困难的时期、最难熬的时期,本身就有“最”的意义了。

2、widespread tragedy comparable to the Sept.11,2001, terrotist attacks and the bombing of Pearl Harbor。很多人都将这次美国疫情与历史上的911恐怖袭击和珍珠港袭击比较。包括这位U.S. Surgeon General Jerome Adams,"This is going to be the hardest and the saddest week of most Americans' lives, quite frankly," Adams said on Fox News Sunday. "This is going to be our Pearl Harbor moment, our 9/11 moment, only it's not going to be localized. It's going to be happening all over the country. And I want America to understand that."

3、a slow-moving hurricane。Cuomo 在一次采访中提到"It's like watching a slow-moving hurricane across the country, where you konoe the path that it's taking, " the governor said Thurday. "Why not deply the national resources and just stay ahead of the hurricane? " 美国遭受的自然灾害还是比较多的,也让美国人刻骨铭心,例如2005的卡特里娜飓风、不时的龙卷风,所以用这些灾害做比喻希望能唤起民众的警觉。

把这次疫情影响类比为911和珍珠港的Jerome Adams是来自美国的Office of the Surgeon General (OSG),这个机构隶属于美国卫生与公众服务部(Department of Health and Human Servies)副部长办公室(Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health)。在的主页介绍的头衔是:,头衔是:VADM Jerome M. Adams, M.D., M.P.H.

VADM,是一名海军中将(Vice Admiral,VADM);M.D. 医学博士Doctor of Medicine,据说这其实是一个医学的本科学位(需考证);M.P.H. 公共卫生硕土Master of Public Health。从他的简历来看:

Dr. Adams received bachelor’s degrees in both biochemistry and psychology from the University of Maryland, Baltimore County, (拿到的是生物化学和心理学的学士)
a master of public health degree from the University of California at Berkeley, (公共卫生硕士master)
and a medical degree from Indiana University School of Medicine.(这个应该才是真正的医学medical的学历,不过这个学位可能就是bachelor)
所以看来,Dr. Adams头衔的Dr.头衔应该是只他的medical degree from Indiana University School of Medicine的学士学位。美国认同中国以及英国等国的医学本科教育相当于美国自己的“医学博士”,而美国的医学教授很多就拥有相当于中国的医学本科的学位。事实上,中国的医学本科教育课程和技能训练比美国医学博士教育要丰富,中国医学院五年制引入了一年半的临床实习和技能训练,而美国医学生要在毕业后通过医师执照考试后才能开始临床技能的训练。美国的医学基础教育是学位后教育,也即一个人如果想进入医学院接收基础医学教育,必须至少首先获得一个任何其它学科的本科学历(文理科都可以)。看来Dr. Adams就是先拿到了前面的3个学位,最后再去拿医学教育的学位,也已经够学霸了,然后按照美国的“惯例”,称为Dr.是实至名归的。Surgeon General 的职位被誉为“Nation's Doctor”(国民医生), 他的任务(Mission)is to advance the health of the American people.

美国的国民医生,为什么是海军中将来担任呢?这里面还有一段历史:

1798年(第二任总统John Adams时代),美国国会建立了美国海军医院服务局(the U.S. Marine Hospital Service,也就是今天的U.S. Public Health Service,翻译为美国公共卫生署的前身)。到1870年(18任总统尤里西斯·格兰特Ulysses Grant),该机构已经发展为全国公认的国家医院系统(a national hospital system)。它的主管官员被称为the Supervising Surgeon。Dr. John Woodworth于1871年被任命为第一任的Supervising Surgeon, 他建立了一直骨干管理团队来运营该系统(the Marine Hospital System)。这只管理团队在1889年被国会正式承认为“现役军团”(the Commissioned Corps)。这只队伍是现役编制,属于军队系列(military lines),一开始的成员都是医生(physicians),后来扩展包括了其它领域与卫生专业相关的专业人员。

1968年以前,Surgeon General (翻译为“卫生总监”较合适),是PHS(the Public Health Service)的主管,所有的项目、行政、财务管理都要经过他,并且直接向卫生教育和福利部部长(the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare)汇报。

1968年,根据Lyndon B. Johnson总统的改革方案,部长Secretary的主管公共卫生管理局(PHS)业务职能分解给了分管卫生的副部长(the Assistant Secretary for Health),而卫生总监办公室(the Office of the Surgeon General)被废除。卫生总监成为了该副部长的首席助手处理专业的医务问题,并且开始成为了公共卫生管理局的关于公共健康问题的发言人。

不过该位置的角色后来也改变过:

1972年,卫生总监又变成了部长的直接顾问,而不是对着副部长(ASH);

1977年,副部长(ASH)和卫生总监的位置合并;1981年,两个职位又分开;

1987年,OSG卫生总监办公室又重新成立,设立在ASH的办公室内。该设置一直保留至今。所以查看现在美国的HHS(已经改名为U.S. Department of Health and Human Services)的组织架构图(Organizational Chart),点击Office of the Assistant Secretarty for Health (OASH)后,就可以看到下一级的 Office of the Surgeon General (OSG)。

可见,这位穿海军中将军服的官员:

1. 其实不是真正的军人。只不过这个职位海军的历史传统,才穿上军装(holds the rank of Vice Admiral,因为名义上是卫生现役军团的领导人);

2.级别应该相当于中国的司局级干部。或者称为司长吧;

3.职能更多的是发言人(the PHS spokeperson on certain health issues)。虽然也号称监管(oversee)美国公共卫生管理局现役军团(USPHS, the U.S. Public Health Service Commisioned Corps)。该军团的成员是穿制服,超过6000人(approximately 6,500 uniformed health officers),后面也关注一下Corps在参与抗疫的情况。

Last update: 2020-04-11|Pageview:136
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